Tag Archive: microcontroller based projects


SYNOPSIS

AIM

DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF A

PRE-PAID ENERGY METER

 

By : Projectsworld Team


INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES:-

 

  • To Design a circuit of an electronic power saving pre-paid energy meter.
  •  Develop new ideas to implement this circuit purposely.
  • To study the circuitry and different types of components &  opto-coupler, 89c51 microcontroller, relay, IR-LED, photodiode and programming in assembly language .

 

A scheme of Electricity billing system called a PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH TARIFF INDICATOR can facilitate in improved cash flow management in energy utilities and can reduces problem associated with billing consumer living in isolated area and reduces deployment of manpower for taking meter readings.

Every consumer can buy a memory card. The memory card is available at various ranges (ie. Rs 25, Rs 50, Rs 150 etc).In our project we have given the name for memory card as smart card.
When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected in prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator kit. Then the card reader will read the stored information using the MC program. So that the smart card cannot be reused by others. Suppose if a consumer buy a card for Rs.25/- he / she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated. According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced. When the amount is over, the relay will automatically shutdown the whole system. In our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced.

NEED TO SAVE THE ENERGY:

  1. The saving of energy will help our country to develop economically and socially.
  2. The energy which is wasted can be utilized somewhere in the remote area.
  3. It is also very helpful in our life to reduce the electricity bill.

HOW CAN WE HELP IN SAVING THE ENERGY?

We can save energy by using the electrical appliances only when needed. So the appliances should be switched off when you are not using them. Generally what happens:-

  1. We are not in the room and the appliances like bulb, tube lights, fans are switched ON mode.
  2. The AC, fans are ON when the temperature is quit low. This carelessness/ignorance not only wastes the energy but also have bad effect on your health.
  3. All the lights/bulbs are ON and only when the visibility light required.
  4. Leave the computers ON while we are not working on it means when we are reading book in front of it, gossiping, going for the lunch etc.
  5. Generally in our home some program is running and nobody is there to enjoy it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM

USED COMPONENTS

SEMICONDUCTORS

(1) IC-1 ………….. 7805 (Regulator)

(2) IC3-IC4…………. MCT2E (Opto-Coupler)

(3) IC-2………………… 89C51 (Micro-controller )

(4) D1-D2 …………….IN 4007

(5) LED ……………… Light Eammiting Diode

(6) T1-T4…………..(NPN)

(7) T5 …..………… (PNP)

(7) XTL…………….Crystal 11.0592 Mhz.

(8) LCD

(9) PHOTODIODE

(10) IR-LED

(11) BUZZER

 

RESISTOR

(1) R1-R3…………….1K OHm.

(2) R4-R19………….. 10K OHm.

(3) R20-R23 ……….. 100 Ohm.

(4) VR1 ………………. 1K OHm.

 

 

CAPACITOR

(1) C1…………. 1000uf.

(2) C2…………. 100 uf.

(3) C3………..10 uf.

(4) C4,C5 …… 33 PF

MISCELLANEOUS

(1) RL1 ………………. RELAY 6V \100 0Hm.

(2) S1 ……….……………… PUSH -TO- ON

(3) 9-0-9 …………………….STEP DWON TRANSFORMER.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. EFY.
  2. http://www.projectsworld.wordpress.com
  3. www.IndianEngineer.tk
  4. www.indianengineer.in
  5. www.microcontrollerprojects.indianengineer.in

 

 

Please Confirm Your Booking by Paying your Booking amount at our Bank Account’s

 

Punjab National Bank A/c No:-

067400-1500035229

In Name of Sh Sumit Kumar.

Thank’s

Freshersblog@gmail.com

 

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  AUTOMATIC   CONTROL OF UNMANNED RAIL GATE

 

automatic railway gate controll project

automatic railway gate controll project

 
We  read news papers very often about the railway accidents happening at un attanded railway gates. Present project is designed to avoid such accidents if emplemented in spirit.    this project utilises two powerful  ir transmitter and two receivers ,one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from the train comes) at a level higher than human beeing in exact alignment and similarly other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction   sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross  at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the indian railway. I have considered 5 seconds for this project sensors are fixed at 1000 miters on both sides of the gate we call fore side sensor pair for commong towards gate train and aft sidesensors for the train just crosse the gate when foreside receiver get activated,  gate motor is turned on in one direction and gate is closed and stay closed till train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors  when aftside receiver get activated  motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops . Buzzer will immidiately  sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between gate. And stop sound after the train has crossed. Two other indications are provided for station master to know the status of gate   in case the gate is not closed due to any reason  a red signalling light fixed well before gate is enough to alarm the train driver to stop the train . The project is simple emplementation and subject to further improvement. Based on atmel 89c51 microcontroller.

Terms & Conditions : Advance 100%.  

                                      Delivery  1 to 2 weeks. 

 

 

 

Object Counter

Project Object Counter Block Diagram

Project Object Counter Block Diagram

 

 

 

The project presented here is based on world’s most powerful microco-ntroller based on intel’s mcs-51 family , generally known as intel-8051. We have used its derivative atmel-89c2051.

Operation:  A pair of 38khz transmitter and a receive is used to count the objects.

Call IndinEngineer's To Book This Project

Call IndinEngineer's To Book This Project

Counts pulses are out from the 38khd receiver which are coupled to an opto coupler.  At pin 2 out put of the optocoupler is connected to microcontroller pin 8 p3.4.

Ic3 an optocoupler will receive incoming count pulse at pin3 and output from pin 5 is connected to p3.4 pinof the ic2 microcontroller,

Two line by 16 character on each line (2×16) is used in nibble mode and maximun count can reach upto 65536 there after it will reset to 00000.

SW1 is manual reset switch to make the counter to reset to zero.

 Circuit is driven by 9v 500m.a.  transformer connected to PCON1

Diode D1-D4 forms bridge  circuit C1,c2 and c3 are filter capacitors and are part of power supply section..

Ic1 7805 is 5v regulator ic to give stablised supply to microcontroller. Ld1 is a  power indication led. R1 controls the current flowing thrugh led LD1 Crystal X1  along with C5 and C6  gives the necessary clock to microcontroller.

Capacitor C4 and R2 gives the required reset pulse to microcontroller.

 

Construction: solder all the parts provided in the kit properly. First connect the jumper wires(links) before you solder the ic sockets. Donot solder integrated circuits directly on the circuit board , it may damage the ic since you my not be experianced soldering person. So solder the ic sockets first on the circuit board. Solder smaller components first like resistance and disk capacitors, assemble the complete kit one by one. Please make sure that there are no  short circuits left on to the circuit board. Connect the main supply wire with 230v ac pins at one end ,to the 9v transformer towards primary side to the other open end. . Primary side will have high resistance when checked with multimeter. Connect 2pin plug to the secondary side of the transformer(low resistance side)  plug the wire to main and check the ac voltage at the plug connected to the secondary of the transformer. It should be 9v ac. Now connect the plug   to the socket connected on to the circuit board. Power supply led ld1 will glow. Check the voltage at the output of the regulator. It should be perfactly 5v dc. Check the voltage at the power supply pins of all the sockets mounted on circuit board it should be 5v dc.

 

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